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Citation Formats Resource

From the library guide on citation management, these are the most common formats for citing sources. If you are unsure which style to use, ask your professor.

Citation Formatting and Management Tools

It can be difficult to keep up with citation styles and the changes within and among them. To take the guesswork out of the process, there are a number of citation-management software programs. This type of software will format your bibliography and footnotes for you. It’s also a great way to keep track of all the information you’ve found.

We especially recommend RefWorks (Internet-based and free to current Cornell students, staff, and faculty) and Endnote (desktop-based).

You may also wish to refer to the Annotated Bibliography Tutorial.

Examples of Citations in APA Format from APA Citation Style guide

Books, One Author, in print

Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.

Journal Article, one author, accessed online

Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002

Audiovisual Media

References to audiovisual media must include the following elements: name and function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, the medium in brackets, location or place of production, and name of distributor. If the medium appears as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed.


Achbar, M. (Director/Producer), Abbott, J. (Director), Bakan, J. (Writer), & Simpson, B. (Producer). (2004). The corporation [DVD]. Canada: Big Picture Media Corporation.

Audio Recording

Nhat Hanh, T. (Speaker). (1998). Mindful living: a collection of teachings on love, mindfulness, and meditation (Cassette Recording). Boulder, CO: Sounds True Audio.

Motion Picture

Gilbert, B. (Producer), & Higgins, C. (Screenwriter/Director). (1980). Nine to five [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.

Television Broadcast

Anderson, R., & Morgan, C. (Producers). (2008, June 20). 60 Minutes [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

Episode of a Television Show from a Series

Whedon, J. (Director/Writer). (1999, December 14). Hush [Television series episode]. In Whedon, J., Berman, G., Gallin, S., Kuzui, F., & Kuzui, K. (Executive Producers), Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros.

Music Recording

Jackson, M. (1982). Beat it. On Thriller [CD]. New York: Sony Music.

Data and Undated Content from Web Sites and Blogs

For content that does not easily fit into common categories like “journal paper,” “book,” or “report,” keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material. For electronic and online materials, include a stable URL or database name and include the author, title, and date published where available. For undated materials, include the date the resource was accessed.

Blog Entry

Arrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Message posted to

Professional Web Site

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from

Data Set from a Database

Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved Dec. 3, 2008, from Bloomberg database.

Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Botswana. (2008). Gross domestic product per capita 06/01/1994 to 06/01/2008 [statistics]. Available from CEIC Data database.

Entire Web Site

When citing an entire Web site (and not a specific document on that site), no reference-list entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper.

Witchcraft in Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology ("

Cornell University Library. (2009). Citation Management. Retrieved May 14, 2009, from

Cornell University Library. (2009). APA Citation Style. Retrieved May 14, 2009, from